The state is the primary duty bearer under the human rights framework. The UNGPs under Pillar I establish the state duty to protect human rights which requires them to ensure the enforcement of existing legislative, policy or regulatory mechanisms seeking to protect human rights within business operations, and to establish such mechanisms where gaps exist. 
The UNGPs integrate businesses within the framework by establishing Pillar II: The Corporate Respect of Human Rights. This Pillar underlines the ways in which businesses may play an active role in protecting human rights by identifying their adverse human rights impacts and striving to mitigate them. 

Civil society organizations can support both, the state and businesses. With the former, they can facilitate the government in understanding the extent of the problem, guide and assist departments in regulating businesses and help in enforcement of human rights standards. With the latter, they have a responsibility to hold businesses accountable where they abuse human rights without provision of effective remedy.

NAP Implementation Recommendations

The NAP on BHR in Pakistan was developed following a consultative and engaging process and received Cabinet approval in 2021. Since its launch, the Ministry of Human Rights has developed an action plan for enforcement and conducted various consultation and awareness sessions to ensure stakeholder engagement in the implementation process as well. To guarantee greater inclusivity and access, we welcome any recommendations to further implementation of the NAP on BHR here.